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What are the key differences between a star schema and a snowflake schema in data modeling

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Aspect Star Schema Snowflake Schema
Structure Central fact table surrounded by dimension tables. Dimension tables are further normalized into sub-dimensions or sub-levels.
Data Redundancy Dimension tables often contain some data redundancy (denormalized). Dimension tables are more normalized, resulting in less data redundancy.
Complexity Generally simpler and easier to understand due to fewer tables and relationships. More complex due to additional sub-dimensions and relationships, potentially more tables.
Storage Space May require more storage space due to data redundancy. Requires less storage space compared to star schema due to normalization.
Query Performance Often offers better query performance, as denormalized tables reduce the need for joins. Query performance may be slightly impacted due to the need for more joins.

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