Green IT MU QPaper Solution (Dec 2023) – IT sem 6

Green IT MU QPaper Solution (Dec 2023) – IT sem 6

This solution is contributed by Darshan and Mangesh. Make sure to follow them on their social handles:

Green IT MU QPaper Solution (Dec 2023) 

Q1. a. What is Green IT? Explain it’s Dimensions. (5 marks) Ans- 

Green IT refers to the use of information technology (IT) in a way that minimizes theenvironmental impact of the technology itself, as well as the way it is used. 1. Economy 

2. Technology 

3. Process 

4. People

Prepared by Mangesh Pangam(XIE)

Q1. b. Express storage media power characteristics. (5 marks) Ans- 

The most common storage media characteristics are:- 

1. Capacity 

It is given in byte (one byte = 8 bit = one octet). Note that the terms kilo-, mega-, giga-, and terabyte are used ambiguously because they can be based on the decimal (kilo = 1000) or the binary system (kilo = 1024 = 2^10). 

2. Speed of access 

It is measured in seconds and refers to the time needed to access a given memory location. In mechanical systems, e.g. disk or CD-ROM, the access time is largely determined by the seek time, i.e. the time needed to access a specified track and findaparticular memory location. 

3. Data rate 

It is given in bit or byte per second and refers to the amount of user data that can be transferred within a period of time. Raw data rate refers to the total amount of data transferred, i.e. administrative data exchange with the device controller plus the user data. In general, the raw data rate is much higher than the user data rate. 4. Cost 

Cost of storage is determined by cost of storage device, the storage medium(for inter changeable media like tapes, hard disk cartridges, etc.), & the cost of maintenance. The cost of medium can be given in absolute or relative terms, e.g. cost per megabyte. 5. Location 

Location of a storage device is either internal, i.e. built into a computer, or external, i.e. a separate device. Internal devices occupy slots in bus & require that there is sufficient space & power supply. External devices attach to the computer via peripheral connectors, e.g. SCSI-ports or PCMIA slots, and usually they have their own power supply.

Prepared by Mangesh Pangam(XIE)

Q1. c. Explain Non-regulatory Government Initiatives. (5 marks) Ans- 

Non-regulatory government initiatives in Green IT refer to actions and programs undertaken by government authorities to promote environmentally sustainable practices and technologies in the information technology sector without imposingmandatory regulations. 

These initiatives aim to encourage voluntary participation from businesses, organizations, and individuals to adopt greener IT practices, reduce environmental impact, and drive innovation. 

The various Non-regulatory Government Initiatives are: 

1. Awareness Campaigns: 

⮚ Government-led efforts to educate about environmental impacts &benefits of green IT. 

2. Incentive Programs: 

⮚ Financial rewards or subsidies for adopting green IT solutions. 

3. Certification and Standards: 

⮚ Development of standards and certifications for environmentally friendly ITproducts. 

4. Public Procurement Policies: 

⮚ Requirements for public agencies to prioritize environmentally sustainable ITpurchases. 

5. Research Funding

⮚ Allocation of funds for R&D in green IT technologies. 

6. Collaborative Partnerships: 

⮚ Collaboration with industry and NGOs to promote green IT initiatives. 

7. Voluntary Programs: 

⮚ Voluntary participation in programs to encourage adoption of green IT practices. 8. Best Practices and Guidelines: 

⮚ Government agencies may develop and promote best practices, guidelines, or standards to encourage adoption of proven approaches and ensure consistencyinoperations.

Prepared by Mangesh Pangam(XIE)

Q1. d. Describe Social movement & Green Peace. (5 marks) Ans- 

A. Social Movement in Green IT: 

⮚ Collective action for environmentally sustainable IT practices. ⮚ Advocacy for green IT solutions to address environmental challenges. ⮚ Engagement of diverse stakeholders for collaboration and dialogue. 

⮚ Promotion of innovation and development of sustainable technologies. ⮚ Influence on government policies and regulations supporting green IT. ⮚ Holding IT companies accountable for their environmental impact. 

B. Greenpeace’s Involvement: 

⮚ Conducts campaigns and direct action initiatives targeting environmental issues in IT. 

⮚ Advocates for supportive policies and legislation promoting green IT. ⮚ Publishes research reports on environmental impacts of IT and advocates for solutions. 

⮚ Targets major IT companies for greener practices through protests and petitions. ⮚ Collaborates with stakeholders to amplify advocacy efforts and drive change. 

Q2. a. What energy efficient techniques should be used to reduce running cost indata centers? (10 marks) 


◆ Data center optimization aims to make data centers more efficient, resilient, andeffective in delivering the services they are meant for. 

◆ It includes aspects such as improving the physical infrastructure, the cooling andpower systems, and optimizing the software and platforms used. 

◆ Primary goals of data center optimization are to minimize redundancy, improve resource utilization, and maximize output. 

◆ Techniques used to reduce running cost in data centers are: 

1. Server and Storage Consolidation 

⮚ Server and storage consolidation involves reducing the number of physical servers and storage devices in your data center. 

⮚ By doing this, you can decrease the amount of space required, reduce energy consumption, and lower overall operational costs.

Prepared by Mangesh Pangam(XIE)

2. Monitor Power Usage Effectiveness (PUE) 

⮚ PUE is a crucial metric for measuring the energy efficiency of a data center. ⮚ It’s calculated by dividing the total energy consumed by the data center by the energy consumed by the IT equipment. 

⮚ A lower PUE indicates higher efficiency. 

3. Cooling and Power Optimization 

⮚ Optimizing cooling and power systems is critical to data center efficiency. ⮚ Traditional cooling systems often consume large amounts of electricity, while inefficient power distribution can lead to wastage and increased operational costs. 

4. Software and Platform Optimization 

⮚ Software and platform optimization aim to maximize the efficiency of the software stack running on data center hardware. 

⮚ This could involve optimizing operating systems, databases, virtualization platforms, and even the applications running on these systems. 

5. Demand Forecasting 

⮚ Demand forecasting involves predicting the future demand for data center resources based on historical data and trends. 

⮚ This allows you to plan your data center’s capacity & infra more effectively, thereby preventing over-provisioning or under-provisioning of resources. 

6. Implement Software-Defined Solutions 

⮚ Software-defined solutions, such as Software-Defined Networking (SDN) andSoftware-Defined Storage (SDS), can greatly enhance your data center’s efficiency. 

⮚ These solutions allow you to manage and control your data center’s resources through software, eliminating the need for manual intervention. 

7. Cloud Computing Integration 

⮚ By integrating cloud computing into your data center, you can leverage the scalability, flexibility, and cost-effectiveness of the cloud to improve your data center’s efficiency.

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8. Implement Automation and Orchestration 

⮚ Automation and orchestration are vital for achieving data center optimization. ⮚ Automation involves using software tools to perform repetitive tasks, such as provisioning resources, managing workloads, and monitoring performance. ⮚ Orchestration, on the other hand, involves coordinating the automated tasks toensure they work together seamlessly. 

Q2. b. Write short note on Green IT standards. Explain any two standards inbrief. (10 marks) 


⮚ Green IT standards are frameworks or guidelines designed to promoteenvironmentally sustainable practices within the information technology (IT) industry. 

⮚ These standards provide criteria and best practices for reducing energyconsumption, minimizing electronic waste, and mitigating the environmental impact of IT operations. 

⮚ Here are explanations of two prominent Green IT standards: 


● ENERGY STAR is a voluntary program established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) that sets energy efficiency standards for various electronic products, including computers, monitors, servers, and other ITequipment. 

● Products that meet ENERGY STAR requirements are certified as energy-efficient and environmentally friendly. 

● The ENERGY STAR certification helps consumers and organizations identifyenergy-efficient IT products, thereby reducing energy consumption and operatingcosts. 

● ENERGY STAR standards are periodically updated to reflect advancements intechnology and energy efficiency practices. 

2. EPEAT (Electronic Product Environmental Assessment Tool): ● EPEAT is a comprehensive rating system developed by the Green Electronics Council (GEC) to evaluate the environmental performance of electronic products, including computers, laptops, monitors, and printers.

Prepared by Mangesh Pangam(XIE)

● EPEAT assesses products based on criteria such as energy efficiency, materials selection, product longevity, and end-of-life management. 

● Products that meet specific environmental criteria are awarded Bronze, Silver, or Gold ratings, indicating their level of environmental friendliness. 

● EPEAT certification helps organizations make informed purchasing decisions byselecting electronic products with lower environmental impacts throughout their life cycle. 

● It also encourages manufacturers to design products with environmental considerations in mind and continuously improve their environmental performance. 

⮚ These standards play a crucial role in promoting sustainability and driving innovation within the IT industry by encouraging the development and adoptionof eco-friendly products and practices. 

Q3. a. Explain SITS Strategic Framework. (10 marks) 


The SITS (Strategic Information Technology Services) value curve is a tool usedinthe SITS strategic framework to analyze and visualize the value deliveredbyinformation technology (IT) services within an organization. It helps organizations understand the relative importance and performance of various IT services andidentify opportunities for improvement and innovation.

Prepared by Mangesh Pangam(XIE)

1. Identification of Service Offerings: 

⮚ Begin by identifying the various IT service offerings provided by the organization. 

2. Evaluation of Value Attributes: 

⮚ Assess each service offering based on key value attributes such as cost- effectiveness, reliability, scalability, agility, innovation, security, and customer satisfaction. 

3. Performance Assessment: 

⮚ Gather data on key performance indicators (KPIs) related to each value attributeto evaluate the performance of each service offering. 

4. Visualization on Value Curve: 

⮚ Plot the performance of each service offering on a value curve graph, with valueattributes on the x-axis and performance level on the y-axis. 

5. Strategic Insights: 

⮚ Analyze the value curve to gain strategic insights into the IT service portfolio, identifying strengths, weaknesses, and opportunities for improvement. 

6. Decision Making: 

⮚ Use the insights from the value curve to inform strategic decisions such as resource allocation, investment prioritization, service improvement initiatives, and innovation efforts. 

7. Continuous Improvement: 

⮚ Recognize that the value curve is dynamic and evolves over time. Continuouslymonitor progress, track trends, and adapt IT service strategies to meet changingbusiness needs and technological advancements. 

Q3. b. What is sustainable software? Explain with its attributes. (10 marks) Ans- 

⮚ Sustainable software refers to software that is developed, used, and disposed of ina way that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs. 

⮚ It is a holistic approach that considers the entire lifecycle of the software and its impact on the environment, society, and economy. 

1. Energy Efficiency: 

● Sustainable software is design to minimize energy consumption during operation. ● This involves optimizing code for performance, reducing unnecessary computational overhead, and utilizing energy-efficient hardware platforms.

Prepared by Mangesh Pangam(XIE)

● By reducing energy usage, sustainable software helps mitigate environmental impact and lowers operational costs. 

2. Resource Efficiency: 

● Sustainable software minimizes resource consumption, including CPU, memory, storage, and network bandwidth. 

● This optimization reduces the overall environmental footprint of software systems and ensures efficient use of computing resources, especially in cloud-based or distributed environments. 

3. Modularity and Scalability: 

● Sustainable software is modular and scalable, allowing components to be easilyadded, removed, or replaced to accommodate changing requirements and scale with user demand. 

● This flexibility promotes longevity and reduces the need for frequent software rewrites or replacements, thereby minimizing waste and extending the software lifecycle. 

4. Openness and Interoperability: 

● Sustainable software adheres to open standards and promotes interoperabilitywith other systems and technologies. 

● By facilitating data exchange and integration across heterogeneous environments, open and interoperable software reduces vendor lock-in, fosters collaboration, &promotes innovation while avoiding fragmentation and proprietary dependencies. 

5. Resilience and Reliability: 

● Sustainable software is resilient to failures, disruptions, and security threats, ensuring uninterrupted operation and protecting data integrity. 

● This involves implementing robust error handling, fault tolerance mechanisms, and security measures to mitigate risks and maintain system reliability over time. 

6. Accessibility and Inclusivity: 

● Sustainable software is accessible to all users, regardless of their abilities, disabilities, or geographic location.

Prepared by Mangesh Pangam(XIE)

● This includes designing user interfaces that are intuitive and easy to navigate, supporting assistive technologies for users with disabilities, and providing multilingual support to accommodate diverse user populations. 

7. Transparency and Accountability: 

● Sustainable software promote transparency & accountability throughout softwaredevelopment lifecycle,from design & development to deployment &maintenance. ● This involves documenting design decisions, disclosing environmental and social impacts, and engaging stakeholders in decision-making processes to ensure responsible and ethical practices. 

8. Community Engagement and Collaboration: 

● Sustainable software fosters community engagement and collaboration amongdevelopers, users, and other stakeholders. 

● This includes sharing code, contributing to open-source projects, providing user support and feedback, and actively participating in discussions on ethical, social, and environmental issues related to software development. 

Q4. a. List and explain organizational and enterprise greening. (10 marks) Ans- 

Organizational and enterprise greening are strategies aimed at reducing the environmental impact of businesses and promoting sustainability across various aspects of their operations. 

1. Organizational Greening: 

a. Energy Efficiency: Implementing measures to reduce energy consumption withinthe organization’s facilities, such as using energy-efficient lighting, appliances, andHVAC systems, as well as optimizing energy use through building management systems and employee behavior changes. 

b. Waste Reduction and Recycling: Establishing waste reduction programs to minimize the amount of waste generated by the organization and implementing recycling initiatives to divert waste from landfills. This may include setting up recycling bins, composting organic waste, & implementing paperless office practices.

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c. Water Conservation: Implementing water-saving measures to reduce water consumption within the organization, such as installing water-efficient fixtures, fixingleaks, and implementing water recycling or rainwater harvesting systems. 

d. Sustainable Procurement: Adopting sustainable procurement practices by sourcing products and services from environmentally and socially responsible suppliers. This involves considering factors such as the environmental impact of product, suppliers’ environmental certifications, & their social responsibility practices. 

e. Transportation and Logistics Optimization: Encouraging employees to use alternative transportation methods, such as public transit, biking, or carpooling, toreduce carbon emissions from commuting. 

2. Enterprise Greening: 

a. Environmental Management Systems (EMS): Implementing an EMS, such as ISO 14001, to systematically identify, assess, and manage environmental impacts across all aspects of the organization’s operations. An EMS provides a frameworkfor setting environmental objectives, implementing improvement initiatives, and monitoring performance. 

b. Lifecycle Assessment (LCA): Conducting lifecycle assessments to evaluate the environmental impacts of products, processes, and services from raw material extraction to end-of-life disposal. LCAs help identify opportunities for improvement and inform decision-making to minimize environmental footprints. 

c. Carbon Footprint Reduction: Setting targets to reduce greenhouse gas emissions (GHGs) across the organization’s operations, including direct emissions fromsources like fuel combustion and indirect emissions from purchased electricity and transportation. Implementing emission reduction measures, such as energy efficiencyimprovements, renewable energy adoption, and carbon offsetting initiatives. 

d. Sustainability Reporting and Disclosure: Reporting on environmental performance and sustainability efforts through sustainability reports, environmental disclosures, and participation in sustainability indices or rankings. Transparent reporting enhances accountability, and builds trust with stakeholders

Prepared by Mangesh Pangam(XIE)

e. Stakeholder Engagement and Collaboration: Engaging with stakeholders, including customers, suppliers, investors, and communities, to understand their sustainability expectations, priorities, and concerns. Collaborating with stakeholders to co-create solutions, address shared challenges, and foster innovation towards sustainable development goals. 

Q4. b. Write short notes on (10 marks) 

1] WEEE 

2] RoHS Directives. 


1. WEEE 

⮚ WEEE states for Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment. 

⮚ It’s purpose is to promote the collection, recycling, and proper disposal of wasteelectrical and electronic equipment (WEEE). 

⮚ It covers all electrical and electronic equipment, including appliances, ITequipment, and consumer electronics. 

⮚ It compliance for producers finance collection, treatment, and recycling of WEEEthrough producer responsibility organizations (PROs) or take-back schemes. ⮚ It is enforced through monitoring and enforcement activities by national authorities in EU member states.

Prepared by Mangesh Pangam(XIE)

2. RoHS 

⮚ RoHS states for Restriction of Hazardous Substances. 

⮚ It’s purpose is to restrict the use of hazardous substances in electrical andelectronic equipment (EEE). 

⮚ It applies to specific hazardous substances in EEE sold in the European Union(EU) market. 

⮚ Here, manufacturers ensure products comply by testing, record-keeping, andaffixing CE marking. 

⮚ It is enforced through market surveillance activities by national authorities inEUmember states. 

Q5. a. Explain Sustainable IT Roadmap? (10 marks) 


1. A sustainability roadmap is a strategic plan or long-term vision, that guides anorganization to achieve its sustainability objectives. 

2. The roadmap consists of projects, activities, and initiatives that will be the planfor how to realize the sustainability strategy. It helps organizations to: ◆ define and implement their sustainability strategies 

◆ recognize sustainability risks and opportunities 

◆ identify actions 

◆ measure their progress

Prepared by Mangesh Pangam(XIE)

3. A sustainability roadmap gives you an opportunity to engage your employees andstakeholders in creating a vision and plan for how your company can improve its environmental performance and create healthy spaces for your people. 

4. The diagram below illustrates the aspects of hospital operations most commonlyaddressed in sustainability efforts: the input of energy, water, and materials andtheir associated output of emissions, effluent, and waste. 

5. An organization may begin its sustainability journey at the basic level, meetingaminimal level of performance, and move toward advanced sustainability goals using the “plan > do > check > act” process. 

6. The timeline suggests these programs do not happen overnight and require bothshort- and long-term plans. 

Q5. b. What are the green data centre energy metrics? (10 marks) Ans- 

⮚ Green data center energy metrics are key performance indicators (KPIs) usedtomeasure and evaluate the energy efficiency and environmental sustainability of data center operations. 

⮚ These metrics help data center operators and stakeholders understand energy usage patterns, identify areas for improvement, and track progress toward sustainability goals.

Prepared by Mangesh Pangam(XIE)

⮚ Some common green data center energy metrics include: 

1. Power Usage Effectiveness (PUE): 

PUE is a widely used metric that compares the total energy consumed by a data center to the energy consumed by IT equipment alone. A lower PUE value indicates higher energy efficiency, with the ideal PUE being close to 1.0. 

2. Data Center Infrastructure Efficiency (DCiE): 

DCiE is the reciprocal of PUE and represents the percentage of total data center energy that is used by IT equipment. It measures the efficiency of energy use withinthe data center, with higher DCiE values indicating greater efficiency. 

3. Energy Reuse Effectiveness (ERE): 

ERE measures the amount of waste heat generated by a data center’s cooling systems that is reused for other purposes, such as heating nearby buildings or generating electricity. A higher ERE value indicates more efficient utilization of waste heat andreduced overall energy consumption. 

4. Carbon Usage Effectiveness (CUE): 

CUE quantifies the amount of carbon dioxide emissions produced per unit of ITworkload processed in a data center. It provides insight into the environmental impact of data center operations and helps track progress toward reducing carbon emissions. 

5. Renewable Energy Usage: 

This metric measures the percentage of renewable energy sources, such as solar, wind, or hydroelectric power, used to power data center operations. Increasing the use of renewable energy reduce reliance on fossil fuels & mitigate greenhouse gas emissions. 

6. Water Usage Effectiveness (WUE): 

WUE measures the amount of water used by a data center for cooling purposes relative to the IT load it supports. It helps assess the efficiency of water usage in datacenter cooling systems and identify opportunities for water conservation. 

7. Server Utilization: 

Server utilization measures the percentage of time that servers are actively processingworkloads compared to their maximum capacity. Optimizing server utilization helps minimize energy waste and improve overall resource efficiency.

Prepared by Mangesh Pangam(XIE)

8. Idle Energy Rate (IER): 

IER quantifies the energy consumed by IT equipment and infrastructure components when they are not actively processing workloads. Minimizing idle energy consumption through power management techniques can contribute to energy savings and reduce operating costs. 

Q6. a. Briefly outline different stages of lifecycle of an electronic device. (10 marks) 


1. A green device cannot be built by just having an additional step in the life cycle of the device. 

2. There needs to be a concerted effort at every stage of the device life cycle – fromthe moment the device is conceived, to its development, to the time when it is used and recycled or disposed (i.e. from cradle to grave). 

3. Each stage of the cycle has varying levels of impact on the environment. 4. In this section, we will look into each stage that a computer device goes throughand discuss green considerations for each stage. 

Consists of five stages 

1. Design 

2. Manufacture and facilities 

3. Packaging and transportation 

4. Usage 

5. Reuse or disposal

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1. Design 

In the design stage of device development, setting environmental targets early is crucial. These targets, derived from environmental objectives and market assessment, guide decision-making. Prototyping aims to meet these targets, with continuous assessment and improvement using a holistic life cycle approach. Environmental impact is assessed at each stage, and design alternatives are considered to reduce impact until targets are 


2. Manufacturing 

The manufacturing process of electronic devices is resource-intensive and generates various types of waste, including toxic substances. To minimize environmental impact, it’s crucial to reduce the use of environmentally sensitive materials and manage wasteeffectively. The EPEAT rating system categorizes devices based on their environmental performance, considering factors like material selection, energy conservation, and end-of-life management. Hazardous materials such as lead, cadmium, and mercury are regulated by directives like RoHS to ensure safer manufacturing practices.

Prepared by Mangesh Pangam(XIE)

3. Packaging and Transportation 

Once manufactured, the device needs to be transported to distribution centers and retailers. This involves shipping, trucking, and other transportation methods, whichcontribute to energy consumption and carbon emissions. 

4. Usage and Operation 

During this stage, the device is used by consumers or businesses. Energy consumptionduring operation, as well as the device’s longevity and efficiency, influence its environmental impact. 

5. Reuse and Disposal 

Eventually, the device reaches the end of its usable life. At this stage, it may be disposed of, recycled, refurbished, or reused. Improper disposal can lead to environmental pollution and health hazards. 

Q6. b. Explain Energy Management Techniques for Hard Disks. (10 marks) Ans- 

The energy management techniques for Hard Disks are: 

1. State Transitioning 

⮚ State Transitioning focuses on minimizing power usage during idle periods bytransitioning the disk to standby or off mode. 

⮚ This technique is based on predicting idle periods and minimizing the performance impact of transitioning. 

⮚ However, challenges include accurately predicting idle times and minimizingtheperformance impact during transitions, which typically last around 8-10 seconds. 

2. Caching 

⮚ Caching is another effective method that leverages large caches to speed up access and increase idle periods for disks. 

⮚ Algorithms such as PALRU and PBLRU optimize cache usage to conserve energy. 

⮚ For instance, PALRU classifies disks based on access patterns into priority andregular classes, maintaining separate LRU queues for each. 

⮚ On the other hand, PBLRU dynamically adjusts the size of cache partitions basedon workload characteristics.

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⮚ Additionally, write offloading is used in enterprise storage devices to conserve disk power usage, particularly in write-dominated application environments. ⮚ It involves periodically facilitating complete spin downs of volumes, resultinginsignificant energy savings of about 45-60%. 

3. Dynamic RPM 

⮚ Dynamic RPM varies the rotation speed of the disk based on workload to meet performance requirements. 

⮚ By adjusting the rotational velocity of the disk to a lower value while still maintaining acceptable performance, this technique aims to limit wastage of performance. 

⮚ Although practical implementation is limited by the feasibility of developing cost-effective multispeed hard disks, simulations have shown that dynamic RPMschemes can yield substantial power savings of up to 60%.

Prepared by Mangesh Pangam(XIE)

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