Green IT MU Question Paper Solution (May 2023) – IT sem 6

Green IT MU Question Paper Solution (May 2023) – IT sem 6

This solution is contributed by Darshan and Mangesh. Make sure to follow them on their social handles:

Green IT MU QPaper Solution (May 2023) 

Q1. What is green network protocol? State it’s objectives. (5 marks) Ans- 

⮚ Green networking the practice of selecting energy-efficient networkingtechnologies and products and minimizing resource use whenever possible. ⮚ Green networks are those which incorporate energy efficiency and lowpower consumption by design. 

⮚ The main aim of green networks is to minimise energy consumption whilemaximising efficiency and optimisation. 

The objectives of Green Network Protocol: 

1. Energy Efficiency: 

Green networking focuses on designing and operating network systems with a minimal energy footprint. This includes using energy-efficient hardware, optimizingnetwork protocols, and implementing power management strategies to reduce energyconsumption. 

2. Renewable Energy Sources: 

Integration of renewable energy sources, such as solar or wind power, in the operationof network facilities. This helps to decrease reliance on non-renewable energy andreduce the overall carbon footprint. 

3. Virtualization and Cloud Computing: 

The adoption of virtualization technologies and cloud computing can contribute togreen networking. By consolidating servers and services on virtualized platforms, it is possible to optimize resource utilization, leading to energy savings. 

4. Life cycle Management: 

Considering the entire life cycle of networking equipment, from manufacturing todisposal. This involves using materials with lower environmental impact, recyclingold equipment, and responsibly managing electronic waste. 

5. Monitoring and Reporting: 

Implement monitoring tools & practice to track energy usage & environmental impact. This helps organizations measure their progress, identify areas for improvement.

Prepared by Mangesh Pangam(XIE)

Q1. b. Express storage media power characteristics. (5 marks) Ans- 

The most common storage media characteristics are:- 

1. Capacity 

It is given in byte (one byte = 8 bit = one octet). Note that the terms kilo-, mega-, giga-, and terabyte are used ambiguously because they can be based on the decimal (kilo = 1000) or the binary system (kilo = 1024 = 2^10). 

2. Speed of access 

It is measured in seconds and refers to the time needed to access a given memory location. In mechanical systems, e.g. disk or CD-ROM, the access time is largely determined by the seek time, i.e. the time needed to access a specified track and findaparticular memory location. 

3. Data rate 

It is given in bit or byte per second and refers to the amount of user data that can be transferred within a period of time. Raw data rate refers to the total amount of data transferred, i.e. administrative data exchange with the device controller plus the user data. In general, the raw data rate is much higher than the user data rate. 4. Cost 

Cost of storage is determined by cost of storage device, the storage medium(for inter changeable media like tapes, hard disk cartridges, etc.), & the cost of maintenance. The cost of medium can be given in absolute or relative terms, e.g. cost per megabyte. 5. Location 

Location of a storage device is either internal, i.e. built into a computer, or external, i.e. a separate device. Internal devices occupy slots in bus & require that there is sufficient space & power supply. External devices attach to the computer via peripheral connectors, e.g. SCSI-ports or PCMIA slots, and usually they have their own power supply. 

Q1. c. What are the 3R’s of Green IT? (5 marks) 


⮚ Unwanted computers & other hardware should not be thrown away as rubbish, as they will then end up in landfills & cause serious environmental problems. ⮚ Instead, we should refurbish and reuse them, or dispose them in environmentallysound ways. Reuse, refurbish & recycle are 3‘Rs’ of greening unwanted hardware.

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1. Reuse 

⮚ Many organizations and individuals buy new computers for each project or onceevery 2–3 years. 

⮚ Instead, we should make use of an older computer if it meets our requirements. ⮚ Otherwise, we should give it to someone who could use in another project or unit. ⮚ By using hardware for a longer period of time, we can reduce the total environmental footprint caused by computer manufacturing and disposal. 

2. Refurbish 

⮚ We can refurbish and upgrade old computers and servers to meet our newrequirements. 

⮚ We can make an old computer and other IT hardware almost newagainbyreconditioning and replacing some parts. 

⮚ Rather than buying a new computer to our specifications, we can also buyrefurbished IT hardware in the market. 

⮚ More enterprises are now open to purchasing refurbished IT hardware, andthemarket for refurbished equipment is growing. 

⮚ If these options are unsuitable, we can donate the equipment to charities, schools or someone in need, or we can trade in our computers. 

3. Recycle 

⮚ Improper disposal of electronic waste (e-waste), including discarded computers and electronics, poses serious environmental and health risks due to toxicmaterials like lead, chromium, cadmium, and mercury. 

⮚ With 20-50 million tons generated annually globally, proper disposal is crucial toprevent harm. 

⮚ Waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) regulations aimto increaserecycling rates and reduce landfill dumping. 

⮚ Despite bans, e-waste often ends up in developing countries, where informal recycling methods pose health hazards. 

⮚ Computer manufacturers should implement take-back programs and reduce toxicmaterials to mitigate pollution.

Prepared by Mangesh Pangam(XIE)

Q1. d. Explain Sustainable IT Roadmap? (5 marks) 


1. A sustainability roadmap is a strategic plan or long-term vision, that guides anorganization to achieve its sustainability objectives. 

2. The roadmap consists of projects, activities, and initiatives that will be the planfor how to realize the sustainability strategy. It helps organizations to: ◆ define and implement their sustainability strategies 

◆ recognize sustainability risks and opportunities 

◆ identify actions 

◆ measure their progress 

3. A sustainability roadmap gives you an opportunity to engage your employees andstakeholders in creating a vision and plan for how your company can improve its environmental performance and create healthy spaces for your people. 

4. The diagram below illustrates the aspects of hospital operations most commonlyaddressed in sustainability efforts: the input of energy, water, and materials andtheir associated output of emissions, effluent, and waste. 

5. An organization may begin its sustainability journey at the basic level, meetingaminimal level of performance, and move toward advanced sustainability goals using the “plan > do > check > act” process. 

6. The timeline suggests these programs do not happen overnight and require bothshort- and long-term plans.

Prepared by Mangesh Pangam(XIE)

Q2. a. Explain the software energy efficiency techniques. (10 marks) Ans- 

⮚ Software energy efficiency techniques are methods employed in software development to reduce the energy consumption of applications and improve overall energy efficiency. 

⮚ These techniques aim to optimize the use of computing resources, such as CPU, memory, and network bandwidth, to accomplish tasks while minimizing energyconsumption. 

⮚ Here are some common software energy efficiency techniques: 

1. Algorithmic Optimization: 

● Choosing algorithms and data structures that are more energy-efficient can significantly reduce energy consumption. 

● For example, selecting algorithms with lower computational complexity or minimizing data movement can lead to energy savings. 

2. Resource Management: 

● Efficiently managing system resources, such as CPU, memory, and disk I/O, canreduce unnecessary energy consumption. 

● Techniques include dynamic voltage and frequency scaling (DVFS), which adjusts CPU frequency and voltage based on workload, and memory management strategies to minimize unnecessary memory accesses. 

3. Concurrency and Parallelism: 

● Utilizing concurrency and parallelism can improve energy efficiency by distributing computational tasks across multiple processing units. ● Techniques such as multi-threading, parallel processing, and task scheduling canreduce overall execution time and energy consumption. 

4. Power-aware Programming: 

● Designing software with power-awareness in mind involves considering energyconsumption during development. 

● This includes profiling energy usage, optimizing code for energy efficiency, andimplementing power-saving features, such as sleep modes and idle states.

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5. I/O Optimization: 

● Minimizing input/output (I/O) operations, such as disk reads and network transmissions, can reduce energy consumption. 

● Techniques include batch processing, caching, and prefetching to reduce the frequency and volume of I/O operations. 

6. Code Optimization: 

● Optimizing code for performance can indirectly improve energy efficiency byreducing execution time and resource usage. 

● Techniques include code profiling, compiler optimizations, and code refactoringto eliminate bottlenecks and unnecessary computations. 

7. Energy-efficient Libraries and Frameworks: 

● Using energy-efficient libraries and frameworks can help developers leverage pre-built components optimized for energy efficiency. 

● These libraries may include algorithms, data structures, and programming constructs designed to minimize energy consumption. 

8. Dynamic Adaptation: 

● Dynamically adapting software behavior based on runtime conditions, such as workload intensity or available energy, can optimize energy efficiency. ● Techniques such as dynamic reconfiguration and adaptive resource allocationenable software to adjust its behavior to meet changing energy constraints.

Prepared by Mangesh Pangam(XIE)

Q2. b. What is sustainable software? Explain with its attributes. (10 marks) Ans- 

⮚ Sustainable software refers to software that is developed, used, and disposed of ina way that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs. 

⮚ It is a holistic approach that considers the entire lifecycle of the software and its impact on the environment, society, and economy. 

1. Energy Efficiency: 

● Sustainable software is design to minimize energy consumption during operation. ● This involves optimizing code for performance, reducing unnecessary computational overhead, and utilizing energy-efficient hardware platforms. ● By reducing energy usage, sustainable software helps mitigate environmental impact and lowers operational costs. 

2. Resource Efficiency: 

● Sustainable software minimizes resource consumption, including CPU, memory, storage, and network bandwidth. 

● This optimization reduces the overall environmental footprint of software systems and ensures efficient use of computing resources, especially in cloud-based or distributed environments. 

3. Modularity and Scalability: 

● Sustainable software is modular and scalable, allowing components to be easilyadded, removed, or replaced to accommodate changing requirements and scale with user demand. 

● This flexibility promotes longevity and reduces the need for frequent software rewrites or replacements, thereby minimizing waste and extending the software lifecycle. 

4. Openness and Interoperability: 

● Sustainable software adheres to open standards and promotes interoperabilitywith other systems and technologies. 

● By facilitating data exchange and integration across heterogeneous environments, open and interoperable software reduces vendor lock-in, fosters collaboration, &promotes innovation while avoiding fragmentation and proprietary dependencies.

Prepared by Mangesh Pangam(XIE)

5. Resilience and Reliability: 

● Sustainable software is resilient to failures, disruptions, and security threats, ensuring uninterrupted operation and protecting data integrity. 

● This involves implementing robust error handling, fault tolerance mechanisms, and security measures to mitigate risks and maintain system reliability over time. 

6. Accessibility and Inclusivity: 

● Sustainable software is accessible to all users, regardless of their abilities, disabilities, or geographic location. 

● This includes designing user interfaces that are intuitive and easy to navigate, supporting assistive technologies for users with disabilities, and providing multilingual support to accommodate diverse user populations. 

7. Transparency and Accountability: 

● Sustainable software promote transparency & accountability throughout softwaredevelopment lifecycle,from design & development to deployment &maintenance. ● This involves documenting design decisions, disclosing environmental and social impacts, and engaging stakeholders in decision-making processes to ensure responsible and ethical practices. 

8. Community Engagement and Collaboration: 

● Sustainable software fosters community engagement and collaboration amongdevelopers, users, and other stakeholders. 

● This includes sharing code, contributing to open-source projects, providing user support and feedback, and actively participating in discussions on ethical, social, and environmental issues related to software development. 

Q3. a. State and explain Business dimensions for Green IT transformation. (10 marks) 


An organization changes or transforms along four different lines or dimensions – economy, technical, process and people – as highlighted in Fig. These business transformation dimensions are applicable to any kind of transformation, and can be also understood as the factors that will change as an organization changes

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1. Economy Dimension: 

– Economic considerations are key in green transformations. 

– Cost-benefit and ROI analyses are essential. 

– Economic growth often correlates with increased carbon emissions, leadingtoglobal economic and legal challenges. 

2. Technology Dimension: 

– Involves hardware, network infrastructure, software, and applications. – Visible changes include switching off monitors and virtualizing servers. – Utilizes emerging technologies like cloud computing and business intelligence for environmental benefits. 

3. Process Dimension: 

– Deals with how tasks are executed within the organization. 

– Involves business process reengineering and green BPM to optimize processes for reduced carbon emissions. 

– Processes have immediate and measurable effects on carbon footprint andarejudged for ecological responsibility.

Prepared by Mangesh Pangam(XIE)

4. People Dimension: 

– Involves individuals’ attitudes and sociocultural setup towards environmental concerns. 

– Leadership from top management is crucial for driving green initiatives. – Involves challenges in changing attitudes and behaviors towards environmental sustainability. 

Q3. b. Explain the Energy Management Techniques for Hard Disks. (10 marks) Ans- 

The energy management techniques for Hard Disks are: 

1. State Transitioning 

⮚ State Transitioning focuses on minimizing power usage during idle periods bytransitioning the disk to standby or off mode. 

⮚ This technique is based on predicting idle periods and minimizing the performance impact of transitioning. 

⮚ However, challenges include accurately predicting idle times and minimizingtheperformance impact during transitions, which typically last around 8-10 seconds. 

2. Caching 

⮚ Caching is another effective method that leverages large caches to speed up access and increase idle periods for disks. 

⮚ Algorithms such as PALRU and PBLRU optimize cache usage to conserve energy. 

⮚ For instance, PALRU classifies disks based on access patterns into priority andregular classes, maintaining separate LRU queues for each. 

⮚ On the other hand, PBLRU dynamically adjusts the size of cache partitions basedon workload characteristics. 

⮚ Additionally, write offloading is used in enterprise storage devices to conserve disk power usage, particularly in write-dominated application environments. ⮚ It involves periodically facilitating complete spin downs of volumes, resultinginsignificant energy savings of about 45-60%. 

3. Dynamic RPM 

⮚ Dynamic RPM varies the rotation speed of the disk based on workload to meet performance requirements.

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⮚ By adjusting the rotational velocity of the disk to a lower value while still maintaining acceptable performance, this technique aims to limit wastage of performance. 

⮚ Although practical implementation is limited by the feasibility of developing cost-effective multispeed hard disks, simulations have shown that dynamic RPMschemes can yield substantial power savings of up to 60%. 

Q4. a. Explain the Information Assurance and Risk Management. (10 marks) Ans- 

1. Information Assurance 

⮚ Information assurance (IA) is the practice of protecting physical and digital information and the systems that support the information. ⮚ An IA strategy employs a variety of security measures to ensure the availability, integrity, authentication, confidentiality and nonrepudiation of an organization’s information assets. 

⮚ Information assurance seeks to reduce the risks to information and systems bytaking the steps necessary to ensure their reliability and ongoing protection. ⮚ Such safeguards have become especially important in today’s digital landscape, where data now drives most of our daily business operations.

Prepared by Mangesh Pangam(XIE)

The 5 principles of information assurance are: 

1. Availability 

Authorized users who need access to protected information should be granted that access without impeding their productivity. 

2. Integrity 

Sensitive information is protected from unsanctioned modifications or deletions. The goal is to ensure that the data remains reliable, accurate and trustworthy throughout its life span. 

3. Authentication 

The identities of all users, devices and applications that attempt to access protectedinformation should be validated to ensure that they are who or what they appear tobe. Authentication often involves use of protection strategies , such as strong passwords, multifactor authentication, biometrics, digital certificates or security tokens. 

4. Confidentiality 

All personally identifiable information and other sensitive information are protectedat all times from unauthorized access. 

This type of confidential data should never be disclosed without proper approval — unless required by law. 

5. Nonrepudiation 

Those who have access to protected information or have handled it in any way shouldnot be able to deny any of their actions, as they relate to that information.

Prepared by Mangesh Pangam(XIE)

2. Risk Management 

Once a risk has been assessed and analyzed, an organization will need to select treatment options: 

1. Remediation: 

⮚ Implementing a control that fully or nearly fully fixes the underlying risk. ⮚ Example: You have identified a vulnerability on a server where critical assets arestored, and you apply a patch for that vulnerability. 

2. Mitigation: 

⮚ Lessening the likelihood and/or impact of the risk, but not fixing it entirely. ⮚ Example: You have identified a vulnerability on a server where critical assets arestored, but instead of patching the vulnerability, you implement a firewall rule that only allows specific systems to communicate with the vulnerable service onthe server. 

3. Transference: 

⮚ Transferring the risk to another entity so your organization can recover fromincurred costs of the risk being realized. 

⮚ Example: You purchase insurance that will cover any losses that would be incurred if vulnerable systems are exploited. 

4. Risk acceptance: 

⮚ Not fixing the risk. This is appropriate in cases where the risk is clearly lowandthe time and effort it takes to fix the risk costs more than the costs that wouldbeincurred if the risk were to be realized. 

⮚ Example: You have identified a vulnerability on a server but concluded that thereis nothing sensitive on that server; it cannot be used as an entry point to access other critical assets, and a successful exploit of the vulnerability is very complex. 

5. Risk avoidance: 

⮚ Removing all exposure to an identified risk 

Example: You have identified servers with operating systems that are about toreach end-of-life & will no longer receive security patch from OS creator. Theseservers process & store both sensitive & non-sensitive data. To avoid risk of sensitive data being compromised, migrate that sensitive data to patchable servers.

Prepared by Mangesh Pangam(XIE)

Q4. b. Explain SITS Strategic Framework. (10 marks) 


The SITS (Strategic Information Technology Services) value curve is a tool usedinthe SITS strategic framework to analyze and visualize the value deliveredbyinformation technology (IT) services within an organization. It helps organizations understand the relative importance and performance of various IT services andidentify opportunities for improvement and innovation. 

1. Identification of Service Offerings: 

⮚ Begin by identifying the various IT service offerings provided by the organization. 

2. Evaluation of Value Attributes: 

⮚ Assess each service offering based on key value attributes such as cost- effectiveness, reliability, scalability, agility, innovation, security, and customer satisfaction. 

3. Performance Assessment: 

⮚ Gather data on key performance indicators (KPIs) related to each value attributeto evaluate the performance of each service offering. 

4. Visualization on Value Curve: 

⮚ Plot the performance of each service offering on a value curve graph, with valueattributes on the x-axis and performance level on the y-axis. 

5. Strategic Insights: 

⮚ Analyze the value curve to gain strategic insights into the IT service portfolio, identifying strengths, weaknesses, and opportunities for improvement.

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6. Decision Making: 

⮚ Use the insights from the value curve to inform strategic decisions such as resource allocation, investment prioritization, service improvement initiatives, and innovation efforts. 

7. Continuous Improvement: 

⮚ Recognize that the value curve is dynamic and evolves over time. Continuouslymonitor progress, track trends, and adapt IT service strategies to meet changingbusiness needs and technological advancements. 

Q5. a. What is Green IT? Explain it’s Dimensions. (10 marks) Ans- 

Green IT refers to the use of information technology (IT) in a way that minimizes theenvironmental impact of the technology itself, as well as the way it is used. 1. Economy 

2. Technology 

3. Process

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4. People 

Q5. b. Write short notes on (10 marks) 

1] WEEE 

2] RoHS Directives. 


1. WEEE 

⮚ WEEE states for Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment. ⮚ It’s purpose is to promote the collection, recycling, and proper disposal of wasteelectrical and electronic equipment (WEEE). 

⮚ It covers all electrical and electronic equipment, including appliances, ITequipment, and consumer electronics. 

⮚ It compliance for producers finance collection, treatment, and recycling of WEEEthrough producer responsibility organizations (PROs) or take-back schemes. ⮚ It is enforced through monitoring and enforcement activities by national authorities in EU member states. 

⮚ Various WEEE categories are: 

◆ Large household appliances 

◆ Lightning equipment 

◆ Automatic Dispenser 

◆ Consumer equipment 

◆ IT and Telecommunication equipment 

◆ Small household appliances

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2. RoHS 

⮚ RoHS states for Restriction of Hazardous Substances. 

⮚ It’s purpose is to restrict the use of hazardous substances in electrical andelectronic equipment (EEE). 

⮚ It applies to specific hazardous substances in EEE sold in the European Union(EU) market. 

⮚ Here, manufacturers ensure products comply by testing, record-keeping, andaffixing CE marking. 

⮚ It is enforced through market surveillance activities by national authorities inEUmember states.

Prepared by Mangesh Pangam(XIE)

Q6. a. Explain the server power management in Data center. (10 marks) Ans- 

◆ Data center optimization aims to make data centers more efficient, resilient, andeffective in delivering the services they are meant for. 

◆ It includes aspects such as improving the physical infrastructure, the cooling andpower systems, and optimizing the software and platforms used. 

◆ Primary goals of data center optimization are to minimize redundancy, improve resource utilization, and maximize output. 

◆ Techniques used to reduce running cost in data centers are: 

1. Server and Storage Consolidation 

⮚ Server and storage consolidation involves reducing the number of physical servers and storage devices in your data center. 

⮚ By doing this, you can decrease the amount of space required, reduce energy consumption, and lower overall operational costs. 

2. Monitor Power Usage Effectiveness (PUE) 

⮚ PUE is a crucial metric for measuring the energy efficiency of a data center. ⮚ It’s calculated by dividing the total energy consumed by the data center by the energy consumed by the IT equipment. 

⮚ A lower PUE indicates higher efficiency. 

3. Cooling and Power Optimization 

⮚ Optimizing cooling and power systems is critical to data center efficiency. ⮚ Traditional cooling systems often consume large amounts of electricity, while inefficient power distribution can lead to wastage and increased operational costs. 

4. Software and Platform Optimization 

⮚ Software and platform optimization aim to maximize the efficiency of the software stack running on data center hardware. 

⮚ This could involve optimizing operating systems, databases, virtualization platforms, and even the applications running on these systems. 

5. Demand Forecasting 

⮚ Demand forecasting involves predicting the future demand for data center resources based on historical data and trends.

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⮚ This allows you to plan your data center’s capacity & infra more effectively, thereby preventing over-provisioning or under-provisioning of resources. 

6. Implement Software-Defined Solutions 

⮚ Software-defined solutions, such as Software-Defined Networking (SDN) andSoftware-Defined Storage (SDS), can greatly enhance your data center’s efficiency. 

⮚ These solutions allow you to manage and control your data center’s resources through software, eliminating the need for manual intervention. 

7. Cloud Computing Integration 

⮚ By integrating cloud computing into your data center, you can leverage the scalability, flexibility, and cost-effectiveness of the cloud to improve your data center’s efficiency. 

Q6. b. What is strategic thinking, planning, and implementation for greeninitiatives required in Education sector? (10 marks) 


Green Initiative in the Education System: 

A. Strategic Thinking: 

1. Vision and Goals: 

⮚ Establish a vision for sustainability in education. 

⮚ Set goals for reducing environmental impact & promoting eco-friendly behaviors.

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2. Stakeholder Engagement: 

⮚ Engage students, teachers, administrators, parents, and the community. ⮚ Gather input through surveys, workshops, and forums to build support. 

3. Assessment of Current State: 

⮚ Evaluate existing environmental practices and policies. 

⮚ Identify strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats. 

B. Planning: 

1. Policy Development: 

⮚ Develop policies on waste management, energy conservation, and curriculumintegration. 

⮚ Establish guidelines for procurement of eco-friendly products. 

2. Curriculum Integration: 

⮚ Integrate environmental education into various subjects. 

⮚ Include hands-on activities, projects, and field trips. 

3. Infrastructure and Facilities: 

⮚ Plan for eco-friendly infrastructure and facilities. 

⮚ Incorporate energy-efficient technologies & green building design principles. 

4. Training and Capacity Building: 

⮚ Provide training for teachers, staff, and students. 

⮚ Offer workshops, seminars, and professional development opportunities. 

C. Implementation: 

1. Resource Allocation: 

⮚ Allocate financial, human, and technical resources. 

⮚ Secure funding and recruit dedicated personnel. 

2. Awareness and Communication: 

⮚ Raise awareness through campaigns, events, and newsletters. ⮚ Use digital platforms to disseminate information and encourage participation.

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3. Monitoring and Evaluation: 

⮚ Monitor progress using key performance indicators (KPIs). ⮚ Evaluate performance related to energy consumption, waste generation, andstudent engagement. 

4. Continuous Improvement: 

⮚ Learn from experiences and adapt strategies based on feedback. ⮚ Collaborate with external partners and share knowledge.

Prepared by Mangesh Pangam(XIE)

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