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Describe the AI perspectives: acting and thinking humanly and rationally.

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AI Perspectives: Acting and Thinking Humanly

1. Acting Humanly:

Objective: The goal of this perspective is to create AI systems that exhibit behavior and actions indistinguishable from those of humans.


  • Natural Language Understanding: AI systems are designed to comprehend and respond to natural language, allowing for seamless communication with humans.

  • Pattern Recognition: Emphasis on recognizing and understanding patterns, both in data and human behavior, to simulate human-like responses.

  • Emotional Intelligence: Developing the ability to recognize and respond to emotions, enabling more empathetic interactions.

  • Human-like Interaction: Mimicking human gestures, expressions, and social cues to enhance the naturalness of interactions.

Example: Virtual assistants like Siri or Alexa, which understand and respond to voice commands in a conversational manner.

2. Thinking Humanly:

Objective: This perspective aims to replicate the cognitive processes of the human mind, focusing on reasoning, problem-solving, and learning.


  • Cognitive Modeling: Creating computational models that simulate human thought processes, including perception, memory, and decision-making.

  • Learning from Experience: Allowing AI systems to learn from experience and adapt their behavior based on past interactions, similar to human learning.

  • Problem Solving: Applying logical reasoning and problem-solving techniques inspired by human cognition.

Example: Expert systems that use rule-based reasoning to make decisions in specialized domains, simulating the expertise of human professionals.

AI Perspectives: Acting and Thinking Rationally

1. Acting Rationally:

Objective: This perspective focuses on developing AI systems that achieve optimal outcomes or solutions in a given task, irrespective of human-like behavior.


  • Logical Decision-Making: Making decisions based on formal logic and reasoning to reach the most rational and optimal conclusion.

  • Algorithmic Problem-Solving: Applying algorithms and computational methods to find the best solution to a problem based on available information.

  • Optimization: Seeking to maximize a defined objective function or utility, reflecting rational decision-making.

Example: Game-playing AI agents, like Deep Blue for chess, which evaluate and choose moves based on a logical analysis of possible outcomes.

2. Thinking Rationally:

Objective: This perspective involves developing AI systems that follow the principles of formal logic and reasoning in their decision-making.


  • Logical Deduction: Deriving conclusions from given information using formal logic and deduction.

  • Symbolic Representation: Representing knowledge and information symbolically, allowing for logical manipulation.

  • Inference Engines: Systems capable of drawing logical inferences from known facts or rules.

Example: AI systems that use symbolic reasoning to draw logical conclusions in areas like automated reasoning and problem-solving.

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