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Web Computing Viva Questions and Answers

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Module 1: Web Programming Fundamentals

1. What is the role of a web browser in web programming?

A web browser is a software application that retrieves and displays web content. It interprets HTML, CSS, and JavaScript to render web pages.

2. Explain the difference between HTTP and HTTPS protocols.

HTTP (Hypertext Transfer Protocol) is not secure, while HTTPS (Hypertext Transfer Protocol Secure) is secure. HTTPS encrypts data for secure communication.

3. What is DNS, and how does it work in the context of web programming?

DNS (Domain Name System) is a system that translates domain names (e.g., www.example.com) into IP addresses. It's essential for locating web servers on the internet.

4. What is TLS, and why is it important in web programming?

TLS (Transport Layer Security) is a protocol that ensures secure communication over the internet. It encrypts data to protect it from unauthorized access.

5. Explain the concepts of XML and JSON in web programming.

XML (eXtensible Markup Language) and JSON (JavaScript Object Notation) are data interchange formats used in web development to structure and exchange data.

6. What does DOM stand for, and how is it used in web programming?

DOM (Document Object Model) is a programming interface for web documents. It represents the structure of a web page, allowing scripts to interact with the page's content.

7. What is the difference between URL and URI in the context of web programming?

A URL (Uniform Resource Locator) is a specific type of URI (Uniform Resource Identifier) that identifies the location of a resource on the web. URI is a more general term.

8. Define REST API in the context of web programming.

REST (Representational State Transfer) is an architectural style used to design networked applications. A REST API provides access to resources and performs CRUD (Create, Read, Update, Delete) operations.


9. How does HTTP work, and what is its role in web programming?

HTTP is a protocol used for transferring data between a web server and a client (e.g., a web browser). It defines the structure of requests and responses for web communication.

10. Describe the structure of a typical JSON object in web programming.

A JSON object consists of key-value pairs, where keys are strings and values can be strings, numbers, booleans, objects, arrays, or null. It's a lightweight data format widely used in web development.

11. How does a web browser interpret and render HTML and CSS in web programming?

A web browser parses HTML to create a Document Object Model (DOM) and applies CSS styles to render a web page. The DOM structure is used to display content visually.

12. Why is URI encoding important in web programming, and how is it achieved?

URI encoding is crucial for handling special characters and spaces in URIs. It's achieved by converting characters to their respective percent-encoded representations, making URIs safe for transmission.

13. Explain the key principles of a RESTful API in web programming.

RESTful APIs adhere to principles such as statelessness, resource-based URLs, and the use of standard HTTP methods (GET, POST, PUT, DELETE) to perform operations on resources.

14. What is the significance of the HTTPS protocol in web security?

HTTPS encrypts data during transmission, providing security and privacy. It's essential for protecting sensitive information like login credentials and financial transactions on the web.

15. How does the DNS system help users access websites in web programming?

The DNS system translates human-readable domain names into IP addresses, enabling users to locate and access websites on the internet through user-friendly URLs.


Module 2: JavaScript 

1. What are the key language constructs in JavaScript?

JavaScript language constructs are the basic building blocks of the language and include variables, data types, operators, and control structures (e.g., conditionals and loops).

2. Explain the different types of objects in JavaScript.

JavaScript has built-in objects, browser objects, and DOM objects. Built-in objects are part of the core language, while browser and DOM objects allow interaction with the web page and the Document Object Model.

3. How does JavaScript handle event handling?

Event handling in JavaScript allows you to respond to user actions on a web page, such as clicks and keyboard input. You can use event listeners to execute functions in response to events.

4. What is the role of JavaScript in form validation and cookies?

JavaScript can be used to validate form data on the client side, ensuring that user inputs meet specific criteria. Cookies can also be set, read, and manipulated using JavaScript for client-side data storage.

5. What are ES5 and ES6 in JavaScript, and how do they differ?

ES5 and ES6 are different versions of the ECMAScript standard for JavaScript. ES6 introduced new features like arrow functions, classes, and let/const for variable declaration, making the language more powerful and readable.

6. Explain the concept of variables in JavaScript.

Variables in JavaScript are used to store and manage data. They can hold different types of data, and their scope can be global or local, depending on how they are declared.

7. Describe the role of conditions and loops in JavaScript.

Conditions (if statements, switch) are used to make decisions in JavaScript, while loops (for, while) allow you to execute code repeatedly based on a condition.

8. What are arrow functions, and how do they differ from regular functions in JavaScript?

Arrow functions are a concise way to write functions in JavaScript. They have a shorter syntax and a different behavior with respect to the "this" keyword compared to regular functions.

9. How can you set CSS styles using JavaScript?

You can manipulate CSS styles in JavaScript by accessing the "style" property of HTML elements and modifying their CSS properties. This allows dynamic styling of web elements.

10. What is DOM manipulation in JavaScript?

DOM manipulation involves changing the content or structure of a web page using JavaScript. It allows you to add, modify, or remove elements from the Document Object Model (DOM).

11. Explain the concepts of classes and inheritance in JavaScript.

JavaScript introduced class syntax to create objects and support inheritance. Classes provide a blueprint for object creation, and inheritance allows objects to inherit properties and methods from other objects.

12. What are iterators and generators in JavaScript?

Iterators and generators are features that make it easier to work with collections of data in JavaScript. Iterators allow you to loop through data, while generators provide a way to create iterators with less boilerplate code.

13. What is a Promise in JavaScript, and how does it work?

A Promise is an object representing the eventual completion (or failure) of an asynchronous operation. It simplifies handling asynchronous tasks and allows chaining of operations when the task is completed.

14. How does JavaScript facilitate client-server communication?

JavaScript can make network requests to servers using methods like Fetch, which enables client-server communication. This is crucial for retrieving data from a server or sending data to it.

Module 3: React Fundamentals

1. How do you install React and set up a React project?

You can install React using npm or yarn and set up a project using create-react-app. This generates a project with the necessary files and dependencies.

2. What are the essential libraries commonly used in React development?

Common libraries in React development include React Router for routing, Axios for HTTP requests, and Redux for state management.

3. Describe the typical folder and file structure in a React project.

A standard React project structure includes folders for components, styles, assets, and pages. It also has configuration files like package.json and webpack.config.js.

4. What is a React component, and how is it used in React development?

A React component is a reusable, self-contained piece of UI. Components can be composed to build complex UIs, making development more modular and maintainable.

5. Explain the concept of component lifecycle in React.

The component lifecycle in React consists of three phases: Mounting, Updating, and Unmounting. These phases provide hooks for performing actions at different points in a component's existence.

6. What are state and props in React, and how do they differ?

State is used for managing internal component data, while props are used to pass data from a parent component to a child component. Props are read-only, while state is mutable.

7. How does React Router facilitate single-page applications (SPAs)?

React Router is a library that enables navigation and routing in SPAs. It allows you to define routes, linking URLs to specific components, and rendering them dynamically without full page reloads.

8. What are the key considerations in UI design in React development?

UI design in React involves creating a responsive and user-friendly interface. It includes considerations such as layout, styling, and accessibility for a better user experience.

9. How do you work with forms in React, and what is controlled and uncontrolled components?

In React, you can create forms by handling form events and managing form data. Controlled components are React components that have their value controlled by React, while uncontrolled components rely on the DOM to manage values.

10. How can you handle events in React components?

You can handle events in React by attaching event handlers to elements and specifying functions to be executed when the events occur. Common events include onClick, onChange, and onSubmit.

11. What are some common techniques for implementing animations in React applications?

Animations in React can be achieved using CSS transitions, libraries like React Spring or React Transition Group, and by directly manipulating the DOM elements using JavaScript animations.

12. What are some best practices for React development?

Best practices in React development include component reusability, following a consistent folder structure, using functional components when possible, and managing state and side effects carefully to maintain a clean codebase.


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