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Explain Different Internetworking Devices

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Internetworking devices play a crucial role in connecting and facilitating communication between different networks. 

  1. Router:  Routers operate at the network layer (Layer 3) of the OSI model and are responsible for forwarding data packets between different networks. They use routing tables to determine the best path for packet delivery.

  2. Switch: Switches operate at the data link layer (Layer 2) of the OSI model. They forward data frames within a local area network (LAN) based on MAC addresses. Switches are more intelligent than traditional hubs, as they can learn the MAC addresses of connected devices and make forwarding decisions accordingly.

  3. Hub:   Hubs operate at the physical layer (Layer 1) of the OSI model. They are basic networking devices that connect multiple devices in a LAN. Hubs broadcast data to all connected devices, leading to potential network congestion and reduced efficiency compared to switches.

  4. Bridge: Bridges also operate at the data link layer (Layer 2). They connect and filter traffic between different segments of a network, helping to reduce collision domains and improve overall network performance. Unlike switches, bridges operate on a smaller scale.

  5. Gateway:  Gateways operate at the network layer (Layer 3) and higher layers of the OSI model. They are protocol converters that enable communication between networks using different communication protocols. Gateways are essential for connecting networks with disparate architectures.

  6. Firewall: Firewalls are security devices that operate at various layers of the OSI model, including the network and transport layers. They monitor and control incoming and outgoing network traffic based on predetermined security rules. Firewalls help protect networks from unauthorized access and potential cyber threats.

  7. Modem (Modulator-Demodulator):  Modems convert digital data from a computer into analog signals for transmission over analog communication lines (e.g., telephone lines). On the receiving end, they convert incoming analog signals back into digital data. Modems are commonly used for internet connectivity over phone lines or cable systems.

  8. Repeater: Repeaters operate at the physical layer (Layer 1) and are used to extend the range of a network by amplifying and retransmitting signals. They are essential for overcoming signal degradation over long distances in both wired and wireless networks.

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