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Table of Contents
Q1 Write the names of the States/Regions in appropriate columns : ( Chapter 4 Climate )
Bihar, Tocantins, Pernambuco, Alagoas, Eastern Maharashtra, Western part of Rajasthan, Gujarat, Rio Grande Do Norte, Paraiba, Western Ghats, Eastern Himalayas, Western Andhra Pradesh, Roroima, Amazonas, West Bengal, Rio Grande Do Sul, Santa Catarina, Goa
|Western Ghats, Eastern Himalayas, Goa
|Tocantins, Rio Grande Do Sul, Roraima
|Bihar, Eastern Maharashtra West Bengal
|Santa Catarina, Amazonas, Alagoas
|Western part of Rajasthan, Gujarat, Western Andhra Pradesh
|Pernambuco, Paraiba,Rio Grande Do Norte, Alagoas
Q2 State whether right or wrong. Rewrite the wrong sentences
(a) The fact that Brazil lies on the equator affects its climate in a big way.
(b) India and Brazil have the same seasons at the same time.
Answer: Wrong – India and Brazil have different seasons at the same time.
(c) India faces tropical cyclones frequently.
(d) Brazil gets a lot of rainfall because of the southwest monsoon winds.
Answer: Wrong – Brazil gets rainfall from South-East Trade Winds and North-East Trade Winds
Q3 Give geographical reasons:
(a) The northeastern part of Brazilian Highlands receives very less rainfall.
Parts of the Brazilian highlands extend upto the northern coast. The winds blowing from the Southern Atlantic Ocean in the southeast and the northeast direction are obstructed by the Brazilian Highlands.
These winds move upward along with the slopes of the Brazilian Highlands. At higher altitude, the condensation process takes place and windward side of Brazilian Highlands receives more rain.
When these winds cross the top of Brazilian Highlands, go to other side of the mountain, these winds are dry. As its effect, the leeward side of the Brazilian Highlands gets less rainfall.
Therefore, the northeastern part of Brazilian Highlands receives very less rainfall. This region is called ‘Drought Quadrilateral’.
(b) Snowfall doesn’t always occur in Brazil.
Brazil is a tropical country. It normally does not receive snowfall.
Brazil is not located in the polar region. Most of its part is located in the tropical zone.
Snowfall generally occurs in the temperate and polar zone due to polar winds. It also occurs in the mountainous and hilly regions of high altitudes.
There are no mountainous regions in Brazil. But in exceptional conditions, southern polar air masses reach the southern part of Brazil. This causes snowfall here.
Therefore, snowfall doesn’t always occur in Brazil.
(c) Convectional type of rainfall is not prominent in India.
Convectional rains are a feature of the equatorial regions and the equator passes through the northern part of Brazil.
Due to the intense heat here the air expands and rises upwards. As the air goes upwards it cools down, condensation occurs and clouds are formed. This leads to convectional rains every day.
As such conditions do not exist in India, convection rainfall is not prominent here.
(d) Tropical cyclones occur rarely in Brazil.
In the northern coastal region near equator, the differences in the temperatures are negligible.
In this region, the winds move vertically.
The convergence zone of the trade winds is also found to be weak in this region. Therefore, tropical cyclones occur rarely in Brazil.
(e) There is not much difference in the range of temperature in Manaus.
Manaus is located to the north of Brazil and close to the Equator.
This region receives perpendicular rays of the sun throughout the year.
It also receives convectional type of rainfall every day.
So the climate is hot and humid throughout the year.
As, there is not much difference in the maximum and minimum temperatures there is not much difference in the range of temperature in Manaus.
(f) India receives precipitation from the North-East Monsoon winds too.
India receives most of its precipitation from the southwest monsoon winds.
These winds enter the mainland of India from the southern regions and gradually flow towards the northern regions of India.
These winds are obstructed by the Himalayan ranges in the north. As its effect these winds start their return journey and start flowing backward towards the Indian Ocean.
In their return journey, these winds blow from northeast to southwest direction. As its effect, these winds bring retreating monsoon in India.
Thus, India receives precipitation from the northeast monsoon winds too.
Q4 Answer the following questions:
(a) Describe in brief the changes occurring in the climatic conditions of India while going from south to north.
The diversity in climatic conditions of India is due to the latitudinal location and altitude of the place. The Indian Ocean at south side and the Himalayan ranges at north side exert a great influence on the climate of India and the origin of Monsoons while going from south to north.
The changes occurring in the climatic conditions of India while going from south to north are as follows :
- In India, as we go from south to north, the temperatures keep dropping.
- For example, in peninsular region located in the southern part of India, the average temperature is found to be ranging between 25°C and 30°C. On the other hand, mountainous regions located in the northern part of India, the average temperature is found to be ranging between 5°C and 10°C.
- In India, as we go from south to north, the amount of rainfall also keeps decreasing.
- For example, in Chennai (located in the southern part of India), the amount of the maximum average rainfall in the month of November is nearly 410 mm. On the other hand, in Delhi (located in the northern part of India), the amount of the maximum average rainfall in the month of August is nearly 200 mm.
(b) Explain the importance of the Himalayas and the Indian Ocean with respect to the climate of India.
The importance of Himalayas and the Indian Ocean with respect to the climate of India can be explained as follows :
The Indian Ocean and Himalayan ranges play an important role in formation of southeast monsoon winds.
In summers, the temperature in Punjab Plains and the Thar desert is found to be high. As its effect, the areas of low pressure are developed.
On the other hand, the areas of high pressure are found in the Indian Ocean. This leads to formation and flowing of southeast monsoon winds from the Indian Ocean to the mainland of India.
These winds are moisture-laden and so they bring rainfall in India.
Himalayas saves India by obstructing the passage of very cold winds from the north into India in winter.
The southwest monsoon winds flow from the south to the north and reaches towards the Himalayas.
These winds are obstructed by the Himalayas. Due to obstruction, these winds change their direction and start flowing from the northeast to the Indian Ocean.
The return journey of these winds bring the retreating monsoon in peninsular region of India
(c) Discuss the factors affecting climate of Brazil.
Brazil experiences wide range of climatic variations due to its vast latitudinal extent, proximity to the Equator, presence of the Atlantic Ocean and the Great Escarpment. The northern part of Brazil near the Equator is hot, while temperate type of climate is found near the Tropic of Capricorn. Brazil gets rainfall from the South-East Trade Winds and the North-East Trade Winds blowing from the Atlantic Ocean.
Convectional rainfall occurs in places near the equator. Whereas, the Escarpment act as an obstruction to the winds blowing from the sea and cause orographic type of rainfall in the coastal region. Beyond the Highlands the effects of these winds gets reduced, as a result the rainfall is minimal. This region is a rain-shadow region and is called ‘The Drought Quadrilateral.’ The Equator passes through the northern part of Brazil so the temperature here is high.
Average temperature of Amazon valley is 25°-28°C. Climate is cooler in the highlands. While the temperatures in the southern part are comparatively lower. In the coastal regions near the Equator in Brazil, differences in temperatures are negligible. Because of the proximity to the sea, the coast experiences mild and humid climate. The winds move in the vertical direction in this region. Similarly, the convergence zone of the trade winds is weak here. So the tropical cyclones are a rare phenomena here.
(d) Compare the climates of Brazil and India.
The climates of Brazil and India can be compared with the help of the following points :
|1. Climate is of tropical type
|Monsoon type of climate
|2. The temperature is comparatively higher in the northern part and lower in the southern part.
|The temperature is comparatively lower in the northern part and higher in southern part.
|3. The amount of rainfall is comparatively higher in the northern part and lower in the southern part.
|The amount of rainfall is comparatively lower in the northern part and comparatively higher in the southern part.
|4. Mild and humid climate is found near the coastal regions.
|Hot and humid climate is found near the coastal regions.
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