10th Geography Chapter 5 Natural Vegetation and Wildlife Maharashtra Board Solutions ( Free PDF )

Chapter 5 Natural Vegetation and Wildlife for 10th Geography of Maharashtra Board for Free can be downloaded in PDF Format.

10th Geography  Chapter 5 Natural Vegetation and Wildlife Maharashtra Board Solutions ( Free PDF )

Q1 On the basis of the information given in the chapter, figures and maps, complete the table below:


S.No.Type of forestCharacteristicsRegions in IndiaRegions in Brazil
(1)Tropical ForestsBroad-leaved evergreen trees.Andaman and Nicobar Islands, the Western Ghats. Some parts of North East India.Amazon Basin, Guyana Highlands.
(2)Semi arid thorny vegetation(a) Thorny and shrub type vegetation.
(b) Leaves are small in size. Leaves are modified into thorns to minimise evaporation.
Gujarat, Rajasthan, Parts of Madhya Pradesh and Uttar Pradesh.North-Eastern part of Brazil.
(3)SavannahScanty bushes and shrub like trees and rain resistant grass.Brazilian Highland.
Mixed type vegetation.Central India and South India.Parana Basin and South Eastern part of Brazil.
(5)GrasslandsGrassland region like the Pampas of Argentina.Foothills of Shiwalik hills and Assam.Southern Brazil.

Q2 identify the odd man out

(1) Forest type of Brazil ______.

  • (a) Thorny bush type vegetation
  • (b) Evergreen forests
  • (c) The Himalayan Forests
  • (d) Deciduous forests

Answer: (c) The Himalayan Forests

(2) With reference to India

  • (a) Mangrove forests
  • (b) Mediterranean forests
  • (c) Thorny bush-type vegetation
  • (d) Equatorial forests

Answer: (b) Mediterranean forests

(3) With reference to Fauna of Brazil.

  • (a) Anaconda
  • (b) Tamairin
  • (c) Red Panda
  • (d) Lion

Answer: (c) Red Panda

(4) With reference to flora in India.

  • (a Deodar
  • (b) Anjan
  • (c) Orchid
  • (d) Banyan

Answer: (c) Orchid

Q3 Match the column


Column ‘A’Column ‘B’
Evergreen Forests(c) Pau Brasil
Deciduous forests(e) Teak
Coastal forests(a) Sundari trees
Himalayan forests(b) Pine
Thorny and bush type vegetation(d) Khejari

Q4 Answer in short

A) Differentiate between the forest types of Brazil and India. ( Chapter 5 Natural Vegetation and Wildlife )


Forest type of BrazilForest type ofIndia
Brazil holds about one-third of the world’s remaining rainforests, including a majority of the Amazon rainforest.Forests in India cover roughly 19 percent of India’s land mass.
Types of forests in brazil include rainforests (the majority), seasonal forests, deciduous forests, flooded forests, and savannas.Major types of forests in India are Wet Evergreen forest, Semi Evergreen forest, Moist Deciduous forest, Dry Deciduous forest, Littoral and Swamp forest / Mangrove forest, Dry Evergreen forest, Thorn forest etc.
In Brazil it has more than 23% of forest covers in the total surface area.Forests in India cover 19% of surface
These forests are very dance and a lots of animals survive in this forest due to availability of good food such as grasses. Grasses are about 2 metres long.india has dense forest near to river banks and evergreen also.
Trees are more than 20 m long.Trees are about 10 to 20 m long and very broad leaves .
These forests have various numbers of medicinal plants.In the Northern side of India it coveres the Himalayan forest which are triangle like structure and also easily surviving in cold regions.

B) Correlate wildlife and natural vegetation in India and Brazil.



A)India: Different species of mammals are part of the Indian wildlife.Some of these are, Asian elephants,Royal bengal tigers,Asian Lions,Snow Leapords etc. There are almost 514 Wildlife sanctuaries across the India.

B)Brazil :Different species of canids and felines are in the Brazil. Example:maned wolf,bush-dog,hoary fox,puma,jaguar etc.


A)The India has a significant amount of vegetation due to the tropical weather here. Mountainous and deserst vegetations are also found in the India.

B) Brazil has a huge amount of vegetation around the Amazon river basin,here is the world’s largest rainforest, the Amazon rainforest.

C) What environmental issues are faced by Brazil and India?


The biggest environmental issue faced by Brazil is the deforestation of the Amazon rainforests. The Amazon rainforests are known as the ‘lungs of the world’ because they generate a large amount of oxygen. Destruction of these forests have also resulted into the loss of habitat of wild animals. Degradation of environment is also caused due to slash and burn agriculture, industrialisation and growing pollution.

India also face environmental issues due to deforestation, growth of population and urbanisation. Many species of wild life in India are on the verge of extinction because of poaching, pollution, deforestation and illegal mining. ‘Cheetahs’, the fastest running land animals have already become extinct in the country.

D) What are the major causes of degradation of forest in Brazil and India?

Answer :: The major causes of degradation of forest in Brazil and India are


Overgrazing, soil degradation, land clearance, climatic changes, excess pollution, depletion of “soil nutrients” through “poor farming practices”,excessive cutting of trees, infrastructure development are the main causes of forest degradation in India.


Illegal “wildlife trade”, “illegal poaching”, “air pollution”, “water pollution”, “land degradation”, excess mining activities, wetland degradation and severe oil spills are the main cause of forest degradation in Brazil.”

E) Why does the deciduous type vegetation occupy most of India?


Vegetation in a region is affected by the climate and rainfall of the region.

In dia lies in the tropical zone and it has a monsoon type climate throughout the year.

Also, a major portion of India receives seasonal rainfall between 1000-2000 mm.

Deciduous forests thrive well in this condition and these forests shed their leaves during the hot and dry summer so that water is not lost due to evaporation.

Teak, bamboo, banyan, peepal, etc. are the trees found in deciduous forest of India.

Q5 ) Give Geographical reasons

a) The northern part of Brazil is covered with dense forests.

Answer: The northern part of Brazil lies in the equatorial region.It receives ample sunlight and about 2000 mm of rainfall throughout the year.In this region, the growth of vegetation is very rapid.So, the northern part of Brazil is covered with dense and evergreen forests.

b) Vegetation is scarce in the high altitude of the Himalayas.

Answer:: As the altitude increases, the temperature decreases. The climate is very cold in the high altitudes. In Jammu and Kashmir and parts of Himalayas temperature drops to -40fiC. Also this region is snow-covered for most part of the year . Very few species of plants can survive in such extreme conditions. Only seasonally flowering trees are found at higher altitudes. Hence, vegetation is scarce in the high altitude of the Himalayas.

C) A wide variety of insect species is found in Brazil.

Answer:: Insects are mostly found in forests, grasslands and swampy lands. Many insects eat leaves, grass and nectar from the plant. The evergreen rainforests are seen in the northern parts of Brazil. The grasslands are found in the central parts and Paraguay-Parana river basin. Similarly, swampy lands are found in Pantanal region in Brazil. . Therefore, a wide variety of insect’s species is found in Brazil.

D) Wild life in India is decreasing day by day.

Answer:: Wildlife in India is decreasing day by day because of rapidly occurring deforestation, poaching, pollution. Expansion of cities to accommodate the growing population is leading to cutting down of the valuable forest which leads to the loss of the habitat of wildlife. Also the problem of pollution has become severe due to urbanisation. Various types of pollution have threatened the lives of many of the species. Poaching of wildlife species have also led to the loss of wildlife in India. Agricultural practices like shifting cultivation has also reduced the forest cover leading to loss of wildlife habitat.

E) Like India, there is a need for conservation of forests in Brazil too.

Answer:: Like India, Brazil is facing the problem of degradation of environment due to deforestation, pollution, slash and burn agriculture, illegal smuggling of wild animals, etc. Trees are being cut down to obtain wood, leading to large scale deforestation in both countries. Also the problem of pollution has become severe due to urbanisation. Various types of pollution have threatened the lives of many of the species. Agricultural practices like slash and burn agriculture (roca) has reduced the forest cover in Brazil. Like India, the problem of illegal smuggling of animals has affected Brazil too. Hence there is a need for conservation of forests in both Brazil and India.

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