Cloud Computing Viva Questions with Answers sem 6 CS/AI-DS/ML

Cloud Computing Viva Questions with Answers sem 6 AI-DS/ML

Q1: What is cloud computing?
A1: Cloud computing refers to the delivery of computing services over the internet, including storage, databases, networking, software, and more, to offer faster innovation, flexible resources, and economies of scale.

Q2: Can you explain the origin of cloud computing?
A2: Cloud computing evolved from the concept of utility computing and the need for scalable and efficient resource allocation, inspired by early mainframe and grid computing.

Q3: What is the Cloud Cube Model?
A3: The Cloud Cube Model is a conceptual framework that illustrates the dimensions of cloud computing, including service models (SaaS, PaaS, IaaS), deployment models (public, private, hybrid, community), and essential characteristics (on-demand self-service, broad network access, resource pooling, rapid elasticity, measured service).

Q4: What is the NIST model in cloud computing?
A4: The NIST (National Institute of Standards and Technology) model provides a standardized definition of cloud computing, describing essential characteristics, service models, and deployment models to ensure interoperability and consistency in understanding cloud technologies.

Q5: What are the essential characteristics of cloud computing?
A5: The essential characteristics of cloud computing include on-demand self-service, broad network access, resource pooling, rapid elasticity, and measured service.

Q6: Explain the different deployment models in cloud computing.
A6: The different deployment models in cloud computing are public cloud, private cloud, hybrid cloud, and community cloud, each offering unique levels of control, security, and scalability.

Q7: What are the service models in cloud computing?
A7: The service models in cloud computing are Software as a Service (SaaS), Platform as a Service (PaaS), and Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS), representing different layers of abstraction and responsibility for users.

Q8: What are the advantages of cloud computing?
A8: The advantages of cloud computing include cost efficiency, scalability, flexibility, automatic updates, reliability, and accessibility from anywhere with an internet connection.

Q9: What are the disadvantages of cloud computing?
A9: The disadvantages of cloud computing may include concerns about data security and privacy, dependency on internet connectivity, potential downtime, and limited customization options compared to on-premises solutions.

Q10: How does cloud computing contribute to innovation and digital transformation?
A10: Cloud computing enables organizations to adopt new technologies faster, scale resources dynamically, and focus on innovation rather than managing infrastructure, driving digital transformation and competitive advantage.

Q11: What is virtualization?
A11: Virtualization is the process of creating a virtual (rather than actual) version of something, such as a hardware platform, operating system, storage device, or network resource.

Q12: What are the types of virtualization?
A12: Virtualization can be categorized into several types, including full virtualization, para-virtualization, hardware-assisted virtualization, operating system-level virtualization, and application virtualization.

Q13: Explain full virtualization.
A13: Full virtualization involves running an unmodified guest operating system on a virtual machine monitor (VMM) or hypervisor, which provides a complete virtual hardware environment to the guest operating system.

Q14: What is para-virtualization?
A14: Para-virtualization is a technique in which the guest operating system is modified to be aware of the virtualization layer, allowing for more efficient communication between the guest and host systems.

Q15: Describe hardware-assisted virtualization.
A15: Hardware-assisted virtualization utilizes special CPU features, such as Intel VT-x or AMD-V, to improve the performance of virtualization by offloading certain tasks to the hardware.

Q16: What is operating system-level virtualization?
A16: Operating system-level virtualization, also known as containerization, allows multiple isolated user space instances, or containers, to run on a single host operating system kernel.

Q17: Explain application virtualization.
A17: Application virtualization involves encapsulating software applications from the underlying operating system, allowing them to run in isolated environments without conflicts with other applications.

Q18: What are the structures of virtualization?
A18: The structures of virtualization include the virtual machine monitor (VMM) or hypervisor, which controls and manages virtual machines, and the guest operating systems running within the virtual machines.

Q19: What are the mechanisms of virtualization?
A19: The mechanisms of virtualization include binary translation, direct execution, paravirtualization interfaces, and hardware-assisted virtualization technologies.

Q20: Compare VirtualBox and KVM based on various virtualization parameters.
A20: VirtualBox and KVM are both hosted hypervisors used for virtualization. VirtualBox is a type 2 or hosted hypervisor, while KVM is a type 1 or bare-metal hypervisor. VirtualBox is known for its user-friendly interface and compatibility with various operating systems, while KVM offers better performance and scalability for enterprise-level virtualization. KVM utilizes hardware virtualization support for improved performance, whereas VirtualBox relies more on software-based virtualization. Both hypervisors provide features such as snapshotting, networking, and storage management, but the choice between them depends on specific requirements, such as ease of use, performance, and integration with existing infrastructure.

Q21: What is a bare-metal hypervisor?
A21: A bare-metal hypervisor is a type 1 hypervisor that runs directly on the physical hardware of a host machine, without the need for a separate operating system, providing high-performance virtualization.

Q22: Why are bare-metal hypervisors relevant in cloud computing platforms?
A22: Bare-metal hypervisors are essential in cloud computing platforms because they offer efficient resource utilization, isolation, and scalability for hosting multiple virtual machines (VMs) on a single physical server, enabling cloud service providers to offer Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS).

Q23: What are the steps involved in installing a bare-metal hypervisor?
A23: The steps typically involve preparing the server hardware, booting from the hypervisor installation media, following the installation wizard to configure network settings, storage, and user accounts, and completing the installation process.

Q24: How do you configure and manage a bare-metal hypervisor?
A24: Configuration and management of a bare-metal hypervisor are usually performed through a management interface or command-line interface provided by the hypervisor vendor, allowing administrators to manage virtual machines, networks, storage, and other settings.

Q25: Can you provide instructions to create and run virtual machines inside a bare-metal hypervisor?
A25: To create and run virtual machines, administrators need to access the hypervisor management interface, create a new virtual machine, specify parameters such as CPU, memory, storage, and network settings, and then install the guest operating system using an ISO image or network boot.

Q26: How can virtual machines be accessed in different environments?
A26: Virtual machines can be accessed remotely through various methods, including Remote Desktop Protocol (RDP), Secure Shell (SSH), web-based management consoles provided by the hypervisor, or through APIs in cloud computing environments.

Q27: What additional services are provided by bare-metal hypervisors?
A27: Bare-metal hypervisors often offer additional services such as load balancing, auto-scaling, security features like virtual firewalls and intrusion detection/prevention systems, and integration with storage and networking solutions.

Q28: What is load balancing in the context of bare-metal hypervisors?
A28: Load balancing distributes incoming network traffic across multiple virtual machines or servers to ensure optimal resource utilization, improve performance, and prevent overload on any single instance.

Q29: How does auto-scaling work with bare-metal hypervisors?
A29: Auto-scaling automatically adjusts the number of virtual machines or resources allocated to an application based on predefined criteria such as CPU usage, network traffic, or user demand, ensuring efficient resource utilization and performance optimization.

Q30: What security features are typically provided by bare-metal hypervisors?
A30: Security features may include virtual firewalls, intrusion detection/prevention systems (IDS/IPS), network segmentation, encryption for data at rest and in transit, role-based access control (RBAC), and integration with security compliance standards.

Q31: How does a bare-metal hypervisor handle resource allocation and scheduling?
A31: Bare-metal hypervisors use resource allocation algorithms to distribute CPU, memory, and I/O resources among virtual machines based on their requirements and priorities. They also employ scheduling policies to ensure fair access to resources and optimize overall system performance.

Q32: What role does storage play in virtualization with bare-metal hypervisors?
A32: Storage in virtualization with bare-metal hypervisors involves managing disk images, virtual disks, and storage pools where virtual machine data is stored. Advanced features such as thin provisioning, snapshots, and live migration enhance storage efficiency and flexibility.

Q33: How does live migration contribute to the flexibility of bare-metal hypervisors?
A33: Live migration allows virtual machines to be moved from one physical host to another without interrupting their operation, ensuring continuous availability, load balancing, and hardware maintenance without downtime.

Q34: What are the considerations for ensuring high availability with bare-metal hypervisors?
A34: High availability with bare-metal hypervisors involves implementing redundancy, failover mechanisms, and clustering techniques to minimize downtime and ensure uninterrupted access to virtual machines and applications.

Q35: Can you explain the concept of network virtualization in the context of bare-metal hypervisors?
A35: Network virtualization in bare-metal hypervisors involves abstracting physical network resources and providing virtual networks with isolated communication paths, VLAN tagging, virtual switches, and network overlays to optimize network performance and security.

Q36: How do bare-metal hypervisors facilitate disaster recovery and business continuity?
A36: Bare-metal hypervisors enable replication, backup, and recovery of virtual machines and data to remote locations or cloud environments, ensuring rapid recovery and minimal data loss in the event of hardware failures, disasters, or disruptions.

Q37: What role does automation play in managing virtualized environments with bare-metal hypervisors?
A37: Automation streamlines repetitive tasks such as provisioning, configuration, monitoring, and scaling of virtual machines and resources, improving efficiency, reducing human errors, and enabling rapid response to changing workload demands.

Q38: What are the performance considerations when deploying virtualized workloads on bare-metal hypervisors?
A38: Performance considerations include CPU, memory, and I/O overhead introduced by virtualization, resource contention between virtual machines, network latency, storage latency, and optimizations such as CPU pinning, memory ballooning, and disk caching.

Q39: How do bare-metal hypervisors address compliance and regulatory requirements?
A39: Bare-metal hypervisors provide features such as audit logging, access controls, encryption, and integration with compliance frameworks to ensure data security, privacy, and regulatory compliance in virtualized environments.

Q40: What are the emerging trends and advancements in bare-metal hypervisors and virtualization technology?
A40: Emerging trends include containerization, microservices architectures, serverless computing, edge computing, artificial intelligence (AI) and machine learning (ML) integration, software-defined networking (SDN), and hybrid cloud adoption, driving innovation and transformation in virtualization technology.

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